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Effet des interventions cognitives précoces sur le delirium chez les patients en état critique : une revue systématique.

A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the effects of early cognitive interventions on delirium outcomes in critically ill patients.

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  3. Joanna Briggs Institute
  4. Cochrane
  5. Scopus
  6. CINAHL database

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Lieven Gevaert, Bio-engineer

Eligible studies described the application of early cognitive interventions for delirium prevention or treatment within any intensive care setting.

Study designs included randomized-controlled trials, quasi-experimental trials, and pre/post interventional trials.

Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Cochrane methodology.Four hundred and four citations were found. Seven full-text articles were included in the final review. Six of the included studies had an overall serious, high, or critical risk of bias. After application of cognitive intervention protocols, a significant reduction in delirium incidence, duration, occurrence, and development was found in four studies. Feasibility of cognitive interventions was measured in three studies. Cognitive stimulation techniques were described in the majority of studies.The study of early cognitive interventions in critically ill patients was identified in a small number of studies with limited sample sizes. An overall high risk of bias and variability within protocols limit the utility of the findings for widespread practice implications. This review may help to promote future large, multi-centre trials studying the addition of cognitive interventions to current delirium prevention practices. The need for robust data is essential to support the implementation of early cognitive interventions protocols.

Incidence and outcome of prosthetic valve endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the Netherlands.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly being used as an alternative to conventional surgical valve replacement. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare but feared complication after TAVR, with reported first-year incidences varying from 0.57 to 3.1%. This study was performed to gain insight into the incidence and outcome of PVE after TAVR in the Netherlands.A multicentre retrospective registry study was performed. All patients who underwent TAVR in the period 2010-2017 were screened for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in the insurance database and checked for the presence of PVE before analysis of general characteristics, PVE parameters and outcome.A total of 3968 patients who underwent TAVR were screened for PVE.

During a median follow-up of 33.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 22.8-45.8), 16 patients suffered from PVE (0.4%), with a median time to onset of 177 days (IQR 67.8-721.3). First-year incidence was 0.24%, and the overall incidence rate was 0.14 events per 1000 person-years. Overall mortality during follow-up in our study was 31%, of which 25% occurred in hospital. All patients were treated conservatively with intravenous antibiotics alone, and none underwent a re-intervention. Other complications of PVE occurred in 5 patients (31%) and included aortic abscess (2), decompensated heart failure (2) and cerebral embolisation (1).PVE in patients receiving TAVR is a relatively rare complication and has a high mortality rate.

ACE Inhibitor Benefit to Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes for Patients with Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3-5: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.

The advantages of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in reducing risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) and delaying end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well-known. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in non-dialysis CKD stages 3-5 patients are still a controversial issue.Two investigators (Yaru Zhang and Dandan He) independently searched and identified relevant studies from MEDLINE (from 1950 to October 2018), EMBASE (from 1970 to October 2018), and the Cochrane Library database. Randomised clinical trials in non-dialysis CKD3-5 patients treated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors were included. We used standard criteria (Cochrane risk of bias tool) to assess the inherent risk of bias of trials.

We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome by random-effects model. A 2-sided p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and all statistical analyses were performed using STATA, version 15.0. This network meta-analysis was undertaken by the frequency model.Forty-four randomised clinical trials with 42,319 patients were included in our network meta-analysis. ACEIs monotherapy significantly decreased the odds of kidney events (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.73), cardiovascular events (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.84), cardiovascular death (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.86) and all-cause death (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.91) when compared to placebo. According to the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA), ACEI monotherapy had the highest probabilities of their protective effects on outcomes of kidney events (SUCRA 93.3%), cardiovascular events (SUCRA 77.2%), cardiovascular death (SUCRA 86%), and all-cause death (SUCRA 94.1%), even if there were no significant differences between ACEIs and other antihypertensive drugs, including calcium channel blockers (CCBs), β-blockers and diuretics on above outcomes except for kidney events. ARB monotherapy and combination therapy of an ACEI plus an ARB showed no more advantage than CCBs, β-blockers and diuretics in all primary outcomes. In the subgroup of non-dialysis diabetic kidney disease patients, no drugs, including ACEIs or ARBs, significantly lowered the odds of cardiovascular events and all-cause death. However, ACEIs were still better than other antihypertensive drugs including ARBs in all-cause death but not ARBs in cardiovascular events according to the SUCRA. Only ARBs had significant differences in preventing the occurrence of kidney events compared with placebo (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Both ACEI/ARB monotherapy and combination therapy had higher odds of hyperkalaemia. ACEIs had 3.81 times higher odds than CCBs (95% CI 1.58-9.20), ARBs had 2.08-5.10 times higher odds than placebo and CCBs and combination therapy of an ACEI and an ARB had 4.80-24.5 times higher odds than all other treatments. Compared with placebo, CCBs and β blockers, ACEI therapy significantly increased the odds of cough (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.76-4.77; OR 8.21, 95% CI 3.13-21.54 and OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.00). There were no statistical differences in hypotension among all comparisons except ACEIs versus placebo.Although ACEIs increased the odds of hyperkalaemia, cough and hypotension, they were still superior to ARBs and other antihypertensive drugs and had the highest benefits for the prevention of kidney events, cardiovascular outcomes, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in non-dialysis CKD3-5 patients.

In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, ACEIs were superior to ARBs in lowering risk of all-cause death but not in kidney events and cardiovascular events.

Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal and transabdominal preperitoneal approaches are equally effective for spigelian hernia repair.

Spigelian hernias (SH) are rare intraparietal abdominal wall hernias occurring just medial to the semilunar line. Several small series have reported on laparoscopic SH repair and both totally extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approaches have been described. However, there are limited outcome data including both of these techniques.

We present the largest series to date of laparoscopic SH repair comparing both popular approaches.Consecutive patients (n = 77) undergoing laparoscopic SH repair from 2009 to 2019 were identified from a prospectively managed quality database. All procedures were performed at a single institution. Patients were divided based on laparoscopic approach used, TEP group (n = 37) and TAPP group (n = 40). Comparison of patient demographics, surgical characteristics, and post-operative complications between TAPP and TEP groups was made using the Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher’s exact tests.
Individuals undergoing TAPP had higher mean BMI (29.3 ± 5.4 vs. 26.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2; p = 0.019) and were more likely to have had prior abdominal surgery (65% vs 24.3%, (p < 0.001). Mean procedure length was 77 ± 45 min for TAPP repairs and 48 ± 21 for TEP repairs (p = 0.001). TAPP repairs had a significantly longer median LOS than TEP (25 vs. 7 h; p < 0.001). Days of narcotic use were significantly shorter after TEP repair than for TAPP (0 vs. 3; p = 0.007) and return to ADL was significantly shorter after TEP repair than for TAPP (5 vs. 7 days; p = 0.016. There were no significant differences in readmission, reoperations, SSI, or recurrence between the two groups.

Our large series revealed that both preperitoneal laparoscopic approaches, TEP, and TAPP, for SH repair are equally safe, effective, and can be performed on an outpatient basis. Therefore, we suggest that the approach used for repair should be based on surgeon experience, preference, and individual patient factors.

Outcome Measurement at a Ugandan Referral Hospital: Validation of the Mbarara Surgical Services Quality Assurance Database.

Five billion people lack access to surgery. Accurate and complete data have been identified as essential to the global scale-up of perioperative care. This study retrospectively validates the Mbarara Surgical Services Quality Assurance Database (SQUAD), an electronic outcomes database at a Ugandan secondary referral hospital.SQUAD data were compared to paper records from August 2013 to January 2017.

To assess data entry accuracy, two researchers independently extracted 24 patient variables from 170 charts. To assess completeness of patient capture, SQUAD entries were compared to a sample of charts returned to the Medical Records Department, and to a sample of entries in ward and operating room logbooks. Two-tailed binomial proportions with 95% CI were calculated from the comparative results of patient observations, against a predefined accuracy of 0.85-0.95.Agreement between completed validation observations from charts and SQUAD data was 91.5% (n = 3734/4080 data points). Binomial tests indicated that 15 variables had higher than 95% accuracy. A total 19 of 24 variables had ≥ 85% accuracy. The completeness of SQUAD patient capture was 98.2% (n = 167/170) of charts returned to the Medical Records Department, 97.5% (n = 198/203) of operating logbook entries, and 100% (n = 111/111) of ward logbook entries, respectively.

SQUAD closely reflects the primary surgical and anaesthetic data at a Ugandan secondary hospital. Data accuracy of key variables and completeness of population capture was comparable to those of databases in high-income countries and outperformed those of other low- and middle-income countries.

Vergleich von Sehbahn und Hörbahn.

Humans receive information from their environment via the visual and auditory systems. This information protects us from dangers and guarantees vital actions, such as social interaction, locomotion, work processes and nutrition.

The most important anatomical and functional features of these two sensory systems are compared and elucidated with respect to their interaction/functional complementarity. For this purpose, a selective literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed (also in the Europe PubMed Central), Psychline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Additional information was obtained from relevant books and websites in the fields of (neuro)anatomy, (neuro)physiology, (neuro)ophthalmology and (neuro)otology.

Search terms were Hörbahn, Sehbahn, visual system, auditory system, visual pathway, auditory pathway, receptors, spatial hearing, spatial cognition, auditory cognition and visual cognition.

Selective episiotomy versus no episiotomy for severe perineal trauma: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

We hypothesized whether a non-episiotomy protocol or administration of selective episiotomy as an intrapartum intervention would modify the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).We registered this systematic review with the PROSPERO database (CRD42018111018). Prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included from databases until February 2019. The primary outcome was OASIS, and the secondary outcomes were any perineal trauma, duration of the second stage of labor, instrumental delivery, and post-partum hemorrhage.

The risk of bias (Cochrane Handbook) and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) criteria were used to assess the RCTs.
A total of 1,833 results (PubMed 650, SCOPUS 1,144, Cochrane Library 33, LILACS 6) were obtained. However, only 2 studies fulfilled the criteria for quantitative analysis and meta-analysis (n = 574). The non-episiotomy arm included two episiotomies (1.7% of deliveries), whereas the selective episiotomy included 33 episiotomies (21.4%). Performance of selective episiotomy demonstrated no difference compared with that of the non-episiotomy group with regard to OASIS (OR = 0.46 [0.15-1.39]; n = 543; I2 = 0%,p = 0.17), any perineal trauma (OR = 0.90 [0.61-1.33]; I2 = 0%, n = 546, p = 0.59), instrumental delivery (OR = 1.40 [0.80-2.45]; I2 = 0%, n = 545, p = 0.24), duration of the second stage of labor (MD = -3.71 [-21.56, 14.14]; I2 = 72%,n = 546, p = 0.68), perineal pain (MD = 0.59 [0.01-1.17]; I2 = 0%,p = 0.05), and post-partum hemorrhage (OR = 1.75 [0.87-3.54]; I2 = 0%,n = 546,p = 0.12). The evaluated studies displayed a low risk of bias in at least four of the seven categories analyzed. GRADE demonstrated a low certainty for severe perineal tears, postpartum hemorrhage, duration of the second stage of labor, and a moderate certainty for any perineal tear.

There was no significant difference between non-episiotomy and selective episiotomy regarding OASIS. No RCT was able to confirm a benefit of the non-performance of episiotomies in the non-episiotomy arm.

Prediction of Intracranial Aneurysm Risk using Machine Learning.

An efficient method for identifying subjects at high risk of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is warranted to provide adequate radiological screening guidelines and effectively allocate medical resources. We developed a model for pre-diagnosis IA prediction using a national claims database and health examination records. Data from the National Health Screening Program in Korea were utilized as input for several machine learning algorithms: logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), scalable tree boosting system (XGB), and deep neural networks (DNN).

Algorithm performance was evaluated through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) using different test data from that employed for model training. Five risk groups were classified in ascending order of risk using model prediction probabilities. Incidence rate ratios between the lowest- and highest-risk groups were then compared. The XGB model produced the best IA risk prediction (AUROC of 0.765) and predicted the lowest IA incidence (3.20) in the lowest-risk group, whereas the RF model predicted the highest IA incidence (161.34) in the highest-risk group. The incidence rate ratios between the lowest- and highest-risk groups were 49.85, 35.85, 34.90, and 30.26 for the XGB, LR, DNN, and RF models, respectively.

The developed prediction model can aid future IA screening strategies.